President Obama signed into law on January 29, 2009 the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, extending the time period for filing of wage discrimination claims. This legislation was passed specifically in response to a 2007 decision of the U.S. Supreme Court dismissing as untimely an employee’s Title VII sex discrimination claim that for many years she was paid significantly less than her male counterparts for performing the same job.

Most discrimination claims require timely filing with the EEOC or applicable state agency. In Florida, claims under Title VII and/or the Florida Civil Rights Act must be filed with the EEOC within 300 days, and with the Florida Commission on Human Relations (the FCHR) within 365 days, of the incident giving rise to the claim.

While this rule makes sense with respect to discreet acts of discrimination, such as termination of employment, many critics of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in the Ledbetter case (including Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who wrote a strong dissenting opinion in the 5-4 decision), have pointed out that because workers generally treat salary information as confidential, an employee may be unaware for years that a pay disparity exists. In the Ledbetter case the plaintiff, who had worked as a supervisor at a Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company plant for 19 years, started out at the same salary as her male counterparts. By the time she discovered the pay difference as she neared retirement, her salary was 40% lower than male supervisors, who had received significantly higher raises over the years.

Under the new law, the statute of limitations period is restarted every time the employee receives a paycheck.

As a practical matter, this decision means that more employees will have the opportunity to file wage claims under the sex discrimination prohibition in Title VII (which provides higher damages), and will no longer be limited to the remedies under the Equal Pay Act (which has a lower cap on damage awards and no provision for punitive damages).


Touted by organized labor as the solution to a struggling economy, the Employee Free Choice Act, if passed by Congress, will pave the way for rapid unionization of many workforces, large and small. For employers, there are some very troubling aspects of this legislation to consider.

Currently, in order for a workforce (or category of employees) to join a union, 30% of the employees must sign an authorization card. The National Labor Relations Board (“the NLRB”) then schedules an election and, after a reasonable period of time has passed for discussion and consideration by the workers, the election is held by secret ballot.

Under the new proposed law, however, there is no period for discussion, and no secret ballot election is held. Instead, once a majority (51%) of the employees signs an authorization card, the union is put in place. And stiff monetary penalties will be levied against an employer who “interferes” with the process.

Under the current system, once a union is established in a business, collective bargaining begins and continues until an agreement is reached. If negotiations break down, workers can strike. The company can then either negotiate further to bring them back, or permanently replace the striking employees. The employer cannot be forced to sign an agreement with terms it objects to, and the union cannot be forced to sign an agreement it objects to. Under the new legislation, however, if a collective bargaining agreement is not reached within 90 days, either party can request mediation. If mediation does not result in an agreement within the next 30 days, the issues are decided by an arbitration panel, whose decisions are mandatory for both the employer and the workers for up to two years. The issues decided by the arbitration panel can include wages, work hours, benefits, and other terms of employment. The employer is bound by that “agreement,” notwithstanding the inclusion of terms it never agreed to.

Another problem with the legislation is the total elimination of employee privacy. Under the current system, a worker who feels pressured by colleagues to sign an authorization card can still vote “no” in the secret ballot election. Under the “card check” mechanism of the proposed bill, once that worker signs the authorization card, his “vote” is cast.

This bill was passed by the House of Representatives last year, but died in the Senate under threat of veto by President Bush. President Obama has already indicated he will readily sign this bill into law if it is placed before him. In light of the support the legislation has received, it is likely it will be passed this year.

Although historically Florida has not been a union state and, for the most part, only large employers have had a unionized workforce, the prerequisite of “concerted action” to form a union requires only two employees in a place of business. Accordingly, this legislation poses concerns for all Florida employers, regardless of size.

Because Florida is a “right to work” state, an employee can get a job regardless of whether they have a union card. Once employed, they are not required to join the existing union at their worksite – the payment of union dues is not mandatory. But the terms and conditions of their employment will still be subject to whatever collective bargaining agreement is in place.


The ADA Amendments Act of 2008, a compromise bill that expands ADA coverage to employees with a variety of disabilities previously excluded by the courts, has been passed by Congress, and it is anticipated that President Bush will sign it into law shortly.

According to the summary of the legislation posed on the Library of Congress’ online public access “Thomas” page (http://thomas.loc.gov/), the amendment:

Sets forth rules of construction regarding the definition of “disability,” including that: (1) such term shall be construed in favor of broad coverage of individuals under the Act; (2) an impairment that substantially limits one major life activity need not limit other major life activities in order to be a disability; (3) an impairment that is episodic or in remission is a disability if it would substantially limit a major life activity when active; and (4) the determination of whether an impairment substantially limits a major life activity shall be made without regard to the ameliorative effects of specified mitigating measures.

What does this mean for employers? Primarily, this means taking a closer look at how your HR policies define “disability,” taking steps to ensure compliance in your hiring, discipline, promotion and firing policies, and ensuring that the new criteria is used when viewing requests for accommodation or employee complaints under the ADA on a case-by-case basis.

As a practical matter, the amendment may bring clarity to gray areas that were previously the subject of judicial interpretation, such as whether an individual with cancer has a disability under the ADA, and whether employees who suffer from serious medical conditions that are controlled by medication – like diabetes and epilepsy – are eligible for coverage. Under the amendment, both would be entitled to protection. The amendment also lays to rest disputes over whether individuals with prosthetic devices, such as artificial limbs, are qualified individuals with a disability under the ADA. (They are.)

Whether the new amendment – which has been lauded by business groups and employee rights advocates alike – will reduce litigation over the definition of a covered disability or simply lead to new issues to be litigated remains to be seen.


President Bush signed legislation on Wednesday, May 21 making it illegal for employers to refuse to hire, fail to promote, or discharge employees based on the results of genetic testing. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 protects individuals whose test results reveal a propensity for a certain type of medical condition, or identify that person as a carrier for a genetically transmitted disease or disorder, from having that information used to deny them either employment or insurance coverage.

There are already genetic tests available that predict the future onset of Huntington’s disease, and a predisposition toward various forms of cancer. Genetic tests identify whether a person is a carrier for Tay-Sachs disease or Sickle Cell Anemia. Other genetic tests predict the likely effectiveness of various forms of drug treatments for conditions such as heart disease, asthma and cancer, providing a valuable aid to doctors in determining a personalized course of treatment. Researchers are currently developing genetic tests that will identify risk factors for a wide range of conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, various forms of mental illness, heart disease and diabetes. Preventative genetic testing has the potential to assist many people in lifestyle changes that could delay, reduce or even stop altogether the onset of these conditions.

The problem in the workplace is that this information could also be used to screen employees, weeding out individuals who are statistically more likely to cause a disproportionate burden on the company’s health insurance plan, or be less productive in the future due to the need for medical leave. Until this week, the law was unclear and often contradictory on the issue of what, if any, use of this information was acceptable in the employment arena. Although the EEOC has taken the position that genetic predisposition to certain diseases qualifies as a disability protected under the Americans with Disabilities Act, courts had not uniformly adopted that view. Various states enacted laws in this area (Florida, for example, has a statute prohibiting employment discrimination based on the presence of the sickle-cell trait, but requires only that the individual receive notice that any other results of genetic testing were used as the basis for denial of insurance coverage or employment).

This new law will at least provide uniformity in the restriction of use of genetic testing results in the employment context, and hopefully pave the way to a healthier workforce through personalized preventative measures.