The IRS and the Department of Labor (DOL) are working together conducting random audits of companies looking for workers who have been improperly classified as independent contractors instead of employees. In 2011, the DOL hired an additional 250 investigators to conduct audits.
The IRS goal is to raise additional tax dollars, since employers do not withhold income taxes or FICA from independent contractors. The DOL goal is to require companies to pay improperly classified workers back pay for all overtime that would have been due if they were classified as employees. The consequence can be economically disastrous for your business, in terms of back overtime, liquidated damages, penalties, and tax liability. In addition, the improper classification of workers as independent contractors instead of employees has implications in unemployment compensation and workers compensation.
One of the red flags to both agencies is an employer who reclassified a group of workers during the year, resulting in issuance of both a W-2 and a 1099 to the same worker for performing, basically, the same services. If your company has made a decision to reclassify workers as a cost-saving measure, make sure those workers can legitimately be hired as independent contractors under the law, or the cost-cutting effort may backfire.
Both the IRS and the DOL look at the following factors.
How closely do you supervise and instruct the worker? Workers who must comply with your instructions as to when, where, and how they work are more likely to be employees than independent contractors. It’s the difference between telling them what to do, and telling them how to do it.
Do you control the hours of work? Although there are situations when the work by its nature must be performed at a certain time or in a certain sequence, in general workers for whom you establish set hours of work are more likely employees. In contrast, independent contractors generally can set their own work hours. Also, an independent contractor usually doesn’t work for you full-time, although there are exceptions.
Do you provide training or did the worker obtain specialized knowledge from outside your business? The more training your workers receive from you, the more likely it is that they’re employees. The underlying concept here is that independent contractors are supposed to know how to do their work and, thus, shouldn’t require training from the purchasers of their services.
Where does the worker fit in your organization? The more important the worker’s services are to your business’s success, the more likely it is that they’re employees.
Does the worker need to perform the services personally? Workers who must personally perform the services for which you’re paying are more likely employees. In contrast, independent contractors usually have the right to substitute other people’s services for their own in fulfilling their contracts. Also, workers who are not in charge of hiring, supervising, and paying their own assistants are more likely employees.
Is the worker performing a specific project with an expected end-date, or do they provide continuing services? Workers who perform work for you for significant periods of time or at recurring intervals are more likely employees. Someone brought onboard for a particular project is more likely to be an independent contractor.
Where is the work performed? Workers who work at your premises or at a place you designate are more likely employees. In contrast, independent contractors usually have their own place of business where they can do their work for you.
Is the worker paid by the hour or by the job? Although there are exceptions, most independent contractors are paid by the job, not by the hour.
Who pays for expenses? Workers whose business and travel expenses are paid by the company are more likely employees. In contrast, independent contractors are usually expected to cover their own overhead expenses, as they factor it into their total charge as a cost of doing business.
Are you providing the tools and equipment? Workers whose tools, materials, and other equipment you furnish are more likely employees. Independent contractors, by contrast, usually have their own tools and equipment.
Does the worker have an investment in his or her business and the opportunity for profit or loss? The greater the worker’s investment in the facilities and equipment they use in performing their services, the more likely it is that they’re independent contractors. Similarly, the greater the risk the worker takes of either making a profit of suffering a loss in rendering their services, the more likely it is that they’re independent contractors.
Do they work for more than one client? The more businesses for which your workers perform services at the same time, the more likely it is that they’re independent contractors. Workers who hold their services out to the general public (for example, through business cards, advertisements, and promotional items) are more likely independent contractors. By contrast, an individual who works exclusively for your company is more likely an employee.
Are there restrictions on your right to fire the worker, or the worker’s right to quit? Workers whom you can fire at any time are more likely employees. In contrast, your right to terminate an independent contractor is generally limited by specific contract terms. Likewise, an independent contractor who has signed a contract to perform a specific project for your company will be in breach of contract if they abandon the project. An employee, however, is generally free to resign at any time.
Remember, no single one of these factors is determinative. The DOL and the IRS look at the combination of factors to determine whether the relationship is an employment relationship or an independent contractor relationship. How these factors are weighed can also vary based upon the specific type of business or industry.